Wyoming, UW Finish Collecting Cloud Seeding Statistical Information

April 4, 2014 — A cloud-seeding research project originally commissioned by the state of Wyoming nearly a decade ago and involving the University of Wyoming has been completed — at least on the statistical gathering front. Now, it’s time to crunch the collected data before results are presented to state legislators at the end of this year.

The compiled data should help to answer the $100,000 question: Does cloud seeding work or not?

“Wyoming contracted with a cloud seeder (Weather Modification Inc.) and a seeding evaluation contractor,” says Terry Deshler, a UW professor in the Department of Atmospheric Science and a member of the project’s Technical Advisory Committee. “The goal was to run a scientifically credible experiment with an evaluator to statistically test the effect of cloud seeding. That’s been an experiment going on now for eight years. Now, we go into data quality control and the analysis phase.”

With the data collection phase completed, actual results — now being compiled for verification and testing by scientists and statisticians with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) — will not be made publicly available until December, when a final report is given to Wyoming’s legislators and a scientific paper is submitted for publication.

“We have a rough outline. We don’t know the results,” Deshler says. “NCAR will be leading the paper, and all funded partners will be writing pieces of the report. Other experts and I will review the paper and the report. Barry Lawrence (project director for the Wyoming Water Development Office) will see everything. We will not be talking to people about this prematurely.”

The Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP), which began in 2006-07, technically was set to conclude at the end of April 2014. However, the cloud-seeding project was halted April 2 due to above-average snowpack (120 percent of the 30-year average) in the mountains of southern Wyoming. The Wyoming Water Development Office made the decision as a precautionary measure against exacerbating the potential of spring flooding.

“We don’t want to exacerbate anything that could be coming down the road,” Lawrence says in recent media reports. “It’s not worth continuing on, so we’re pulling the plug.”

Before the decision to halt the project, Deshler says it was possible a few more cloud-seeding experiments could have been conducted this month, if snow conditions were ideal.

Planting the seeds

In 2005, the Wyoming State Legislature approved a five-year weather modification study administered by the Wyoming Water Development Office. The state-funded program is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of cloud seeding, a form of artificial weather modification, with silver iodide to enhance snowfall from winter orographic storms in the Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre mountains. Such storms occur when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher one as it moves over rising terrain.

Due to water shortages and droughts in some states and in countries around the world, cloud seeding is seen as a potential way to increase water supplies for communities and to irrigate crops. Cloud seeding typically is paid for by water resource managers, power companies (hydropower) and agricultural interests.

“This experiment by the state of Wyoming is the first statistically valid experiment that has been run in the U.S. on cloud seeding since the 1960s to the ‘70s,” Deshler says. “People gave up (after that time period) because of the amount of time required to do cloud-seeding experiments.”

Deshler is a co-writer of a paper, titled “Evaluating Winter Orographic Cloud Seeding: Design of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP),” that was published in the February issue of the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

The paper compiles the parameters set forth in advance for the Wyoming cloud-seeding study.

“As a scientist, you want to say at the beginning how you plan to run your project,” Deshler says. “It lends the project credibility.”

Precipitation in winter orographic storms generally develops when ice crystals form and grow on natural ice nuclei, such as dust particles. In many storms, the lack of natural ice nuclei active at warmer temperatures results in an inefficient precipitation process. In addition, weak updrafts in these clouds and narrow cloud droplet distributions limit the impacts of any ice processes to multiply.

During cloud seeding, silver iodide is released into the clouds through generators that were strategically placed upwind of the ridges of the Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre mountains in southern Wyoming. The silver iodide facilitates ice crystal formation in super-cooled water clouds.

Testing period

Randomized cloud seeding began during 2008-09, with the seeding period running from Nov. 15 through April 15 each year. Since the project started, the Legislature has twice funded two-year extensions to the original five-year appropriation because the number of cloud-seeding experiments was not sufficient to reach statistically significant conclusions for the WWMPP, Deshler says.

The original expectation was to run 65-70 four-hour experiments during the seeding period for each year. However, based on conditions ripe for cloud seeding, experiments each season numbered in the 25-30 range, Deshler says. Over the course of six years, that would mean 150-180 experiments were conducted.

“Is that enough (experiments) if we assume some change?” Deshler asked rhetorically. “That depends on the magnitude of the effect. Small changes will limit the confidence we have in the result because of the large variability in natural snowfall. An effect of 10 percent may be difficult to substantiate with confidence, based on the number of experimental cases. But, let’s wait until the data are analyzed later this year.”

“After we analyze all the data, we’ll get a distribution of effects that gives us a mean,” he adds. “That mean is the overall result of this experiment. Along with the mean, we will have a statistical confidence in the validity of the mean. We had hoped to achieve 95 percent confidence initially. Now, we’re not sure it will be that high. But that depends on the data we have. So, we’ll see.”

Initially, the Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre ranges were going to be treated independently relative to cloud seeding decisions, with results to be pooled for statistical evaluation. However, numerous factors suggested storm conditions and precipitation would be far from independent in the two ranges, Deshler says.

There was a correlation of about 50 percent between the ranges for all storms, which affected snowfall. This correlation made pooling more difficult, as many experiments in the two mountain ranges would not be independent.

As a result, the researchers decided to design an experiment using a randomized cross-over design. Using the two cloud-seeding target areas, paired data can be produced that is more efficient and decreases sample size. Sticking with a single-target design for each area could require 15 or more years of data, Deshler says.

“We don’t have that kind of time or funding,” he says.

During each experiment, a buffer period up to four hours following cloud seeding was used, according to the research paper. The buffer period was used to guard against contamination, meaning researchers wanted time to determine whether seeding material may inadvertently affect precipitation in an area considered to be unseeded.

The cloud-seeding estimates are highly dependent on the expected effect of seeding, on correlations between the two mountain ranges and between the target and control sites, and on the variance of precipitation.

The paper’s other co-writers are Roy Rasmussen, senior scientist and deputy director of NCAR’s Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory; Daniel Breed and Courtney Weeks, both with the title of associate scientist II in NCAR’s Research Applications Laboratory; and Bruce Boe, director of meteorology of Weather Modification Inc., a Fargo, N.D.-based cloud-seeding company.

Source: http://www.uwyo.edu/uw/news/2014/04/wyoming-uw-finish-collecting cloud seeding statistical-information.htm

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Seven Volcanoes In Six Different Countries All Start Erupting Within Hours Of Each Other

Seven Volcanoes In Six Different Countries All Start Erupting Within Hours Of Each OtherA new island has appeared in the Pacific. A submarine eruption just off Nishino-Shima Island Japan has erupted for the first time in 40 years. The Japanese Navy noticed the explosions as boiling lava met sea water giving rise to plumes of steam and ash.

Almost 7,000 miles away in Mexico, the Colima volcano blew its top after a period of relative calm. A steam and ash cloud rose two miles into the sky and the grumbling of the mountain could be heard in towns a few miles away.

In Guatemala the ‘Fire Mountain’ belched out lava and sent up a moderate ash cloud causing an ash fall over nearby towns. The explosions and shock waves occurring in the volcano can be felt by residents over 6 miles away. Doors and windows are reported to be rattling, but there has been no damage so far.

In Vanuatu the Yasur volcano is giving some cause for concern. Although the explosions are quite weak the continuous ash that is coming from the mountain is starting to build up on farming land.

Over to Italy, Mount Etna is putting on quite a display. The current eruption started a few days ago and has been getting stronger as time moves on. A massive eruption lit up the sky and disturbed residents yesterday. The ash cloud was high enough to see flights canceled. The lava flow was the biggest in years, and the town of Zafferana which lay in its path saw some damage. Lava diverters were put into place, and most of the town escaped unscathed.

The Etna eruption (Nov 17th)

In Indonesia a four mile high ash cloud is making life hard for residents. Mount Sinabung came back to life in 2010 after dormancy of hundreds of years. Occasionally coming to life after its 2010 awakening, the rumbling of the volcano prompted the evacuation of over 6000 people as scientists feared a major eruption. There has been no lava flows so far but the ash cloud is growing.

Mount Sinabung ash cloud dn24602-1_1200

Still in Indonesia but on the island of Java this time, Mount Merapi exploded yesterday. Hundreds of people were killed when it last erupted in 2010. There is no news of casualties at this point.

So, we have eruptions big enough to prompt evacuations. Flights are canceled, and a new island pops up off the coast of Japan. I would have called that newsworthy myself but obviously I’m wrong. If I was right it would have been common knowledge right? Reports may have been on the news right?

So many volcanoes throwing so much gas, ash and particulates into the air can have an effect on climate, this is a scientific fact. I’m not saying that these volcanoes herald the start of a new ice age but the planet certainly seems to be getting a bit more active of late.

Continued large eruptions put a huge amount of particulate matter into the atmosphere, and these particles reflect sunlight away from earth and when there is enough of them the temperatures can drop.

The Mount Pinatubo eruption lowered temperatures by around 0.5°C across the Northern Hemisphere. Considering that we are in a cooling period anyway, having so many volcanoes going off at the same time is not good. Aside from the devastating effects the lava and ash can have on the lives of those living near to them, the global impacts can be enormous.

Lost crops due to ash fall and lower temperatures can lead to hunger and famine, as happened after the Tambora eruption in 1815.

Economic losses due to lost crops and canceled flights runs into millions of dollars a day, as with the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallojkull (pronounced: aya fiat la u cud la) in 2010.

The spasms of the earth come without warning, but at the same time those spasms should be a wake up call to all of us that change can happen in the blink of an eye. Better be prepared for it.

 

Article source:

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24602#.Uo33TaU0H8t

http://voiceofrussia.com/news/2013_11_19/photo-Etna-volcano-shoots-ash-into…

http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/vanuatu/yasur/news/38906/Yasur-volcano-Tanna-Island…

http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/fuego/news/38911/Fuego-volcano…

http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=264040

 By Chris Carrington

Source http://www.riseearth.com/2013/11/seven-volcanoes-in-six-different.html

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UPDATE

This article, originally posted November 2013, has been debunked.  

These eruptions did not occur within hours of each other:

Colima

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jan 6 2013 Nov 17 (continuing) Confirmed Historical Observations Summit crater

Pacaya (Guatemala)

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Mar 5 2013 Sep 16 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations MacKenney Crater

Yasur (Vanuatu)

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1774 (in or before) 2013 Nov 19 (continuing) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations

Etna (Italy)

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Sep 3 2014 Feb 27 (?) Confirmed Historical Observations New Southeast Crater (NSEC)

Sinabung (Malaysia)

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Sep 15 2014 Jan 16 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

We apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused you.  We pride ourselves on posting the truth, and the truth is, this ain’t true.

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Krakatau unrest March 2014 on Climate Viewer 3D
Krakatau – Report for 26 March-1 April 2014 – New Activity Unrest – Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not identified in satellite images. (image source: Climate Viewer 3D)

 

Planet Without A Future? New Weapons, Geoengineering and the Destruction of Earth

March 27, 2014 by    

The World’s Elite are playing God with the Earth’s Environment – As George Carlin used to say… It’s easy to predict a winner here:

No matter where you stand (or think you stand) on Environmental issues, This article is a good read and will leave you more informed by the end.

Greenpeace used to be on the front lines of those demanding a clean, green environment and truly open, transparent and democratic governments. Yet you seem NOT to be taking up the main issues of the day: chemtrails, X-based radar, over the horizon radar, HAARP, WOODPECKER and all such ionospheric heaters; lying promotion of nuclear power as a ‘cure’ for climate change, while omitting all the co2 emitted in mining, milling, transportation and unending waste management!

Meanwhile the warriors in our midst are practicing and actually carrying on “weather wars”, military exercises above our heads polluting our earth and food web, and trying to get civil society to bless geoengineering!

 Have you become passive? Can you hear the cries of those who want to truly save the planet and not try to use its suffering to cover for their own hidden agenda? Based on what I have been told about Greenpeace in Germany, I am hoping for you to wake up and help! (Rosalie Bertell, Message to Greenpeace, October 2011)

Original of the last major interview with the late Dr. Rosalie Bertell, recorded in 2010 at the “30 Years of Right Livelihood Award”, Bonn, Germany

Bertell: Ok, so when they had these nuclear bombs they were afraid of retaliation and they wanted to know everything it could do. And what they did is they tried it in every possible place. They tried it under the water, on level of the ground, they tried airbursts at different heights and this was, this brought you into the early fifty’s when sputnik went up and then the US tried to send their first rockets up – that’s when they discovered the Van Allen Belts. So we never set off a bomb up there and they set it off up in the Van Allen Belts. I think it was part of that program to try it everywhere and see what it did. And so they … it’s incredible to think anybody would do this.

Interviewer: Do you see these weather manipulation experiments only so far in an almost theoretical or coincidental way so that for example last winter was very cold and very snowy – maybe related to this cloud – or is this already a longer strategic thing? I have heard about experiments of heavy rains and floods in England, and there are some other ideas and hints that other big hurricanes or weather changes are related to that. Can you give any other examples of that?

Bertell:  Yes, we’ve got sixty years of experimentation and what we are seeing are individual acts of using the ability to manipulate weather for a particular purpose. So not everybody’s hurricane is manipulated, but some are. And it`s very difficult to tell the difference. So not every earthquake is manipulated, but some are. The one that is most famous for being manipulated is the Chinese (hurricane – flaw) earthquake where thousands of people died. I don’t think I can put the date on it, but it was in the 1980ths. It was a horrible event but there was a “plasma” over it before.

 Another one that was likely deliberately caused was the San Francisco earthquake, because there were events measured ahead a time that something was going to happen and it was coming from the – what we called, what the US called the Woodpecker. This is an instrument they have, we call the Russian one the Woodpecker, the US one is called HAARP. HAARP -High Active Auroral Research Project.

  These are Projects of multi synchronized towers – projection towers. And when you got enough of them in one place acting at the same time, you can do pulsed energy directed at the earth, and you can cause vibration of the earth and you can cause earthquakes. So the Woodpecker is called that because you detect the sound and it’s periodic – it’s pulsed. And it sounds like a woodpecker but HAARP does the same thing.

  There is one in Tromsoe / Norway , there is three of them now in Russia, the US has three I think, one in Colorado and there are two in Alaska, there is one in Puerto Rico. I suspect there is one in the Antarctic, because then they coordinate between these instruments and they can do things like directed Jet-current. So you know that night in your news report, you see where the Jet-Stream is. And people above are cold and the people below are warm, or something like that. But anyway, by moving the Jet-Stream, you can change people’s weather.

There are also five big rivers in the (atmosphere of the) northern hemisphere and five in the southern hemisphere – that are vapor- rivers and they bring the waters from the tropics up to the middle latitudes. And like there is one right over the Atlantic Ocean, just off the east coast of the US. They did an experiment where they moved it on to the continent and we had the terrible Mississippi flood. The whole center of the country was flooded. So these are things they can do. They can cause a drought by moving the river away and they can cause a flood by moving the river towards the place.

 Interviewer: Still – for I mean – it’s always possible to hear about this theories that HAARP could provoke earthquakes, or what I have heard was that HAARP could create with focused electromagnetic fields also a change in human consciousness – but this maybe we talk about this later – but this seems in a way also – well how to say it- in Germany we say “conspiracy theory” which is a theory of a power which does things which are terrible and which are to control earth. And it’s a little bit like a fairy tale atmosphere because you never know really what it is about. How clear are proofs that for example there are military experiments with provoking earthquakes…?

  Bertell:  Well, ah to provoke an earthquake you really have to use the molten core inside the earth, and you have to send pulsed electromagnetic waves there and cause it to turbulence. Turbulence can be measured. So we have very real reports of turbulence of the magnetic core of the earth followed by earthquakes, so you know that’s not a myth.. I think if we actually go and see these instruments.

  I went up to Gakona, Alaska – and I saw the HAARP facility. At the time I went, which was around maybe a little before 2000, they had 48 transmission towers in a 6 by 8 grid perfectly formed, perfectly synchronized. They now have a 150 towers in the same place and they are planning on as many as 700. Now you start sending energy, that is totally synchronized from even the 48 you(r) causing effect (in) the ionosphere is measurable that it was lifted up when this energy hit it. So it’s lifted up above the earth, you can actually measure that. They can actually produce lenses in the ionosphere and they can use it for a directed energy shoot. I think the purpose of that is wherever the military locates they can provide it with all the energy it needs without having to carry big deposits of oil or something – you don’t need all those oil carriers to make all your electricity work.

The other thing that they can do, they get most of their money outside of the black-box money – the money from congress – goes for deep earth tomography. And deep earth tomography is when they have a synchronized electromagnetic wave, it hits the ionosphere and the back ray is at low (LF) and extra low frequency (ELF) and that goes right through the planet. So what they (have) been doing is mapping the whole inside of the planet earth. They can find the oil and gas deposits, they can find underground bunkers, they can find all kind of things inside the earth with these – this is like a cat-scan of the earth, and that’s what goes right through the people. Now they use the low range of electromagnetic energy and the human body reacts to energy between – like one to teen hertz. That’s the extra low frequency. So yes they go right through the human body and they do affect it – the thing is they don’t do it all the time.

Now HAARP is only allowed to operate four times a year. It’s not – unless some emergency is declared, but normally they are only allowed to operate four times a year. So there are lots of things you can do if you – you know, you look at what’s happening around the world and you look and see if HAARP is operating. I mean there are ways to track these things down. You are never really sure. But because it looks like a normal event, but when it occurs totally out of season or when it’s extremely violent – when, you know you – these are the ones you can be suspicious about.

 Interviewer: So you say about HAARP that it has almost three functions: that you can pulse frequencies into the earth making the core of earth getting into turbulence, it could be transmitting energy from one point to the other, and it can be used to change magnetic fields in certain areas of the earth. What would be the reason for doing that for example, changing magnetic fields in different parts of the earth – and what happens if the magnetic field is artificially changed?

Bertell: It’s what the military called the positing energy, which is like bombs, it’s like bombs. But it – they can set fire, too, in a whole area. You cause a drought in an area, and then you send in a lot of ultraviolet waves, you can cause a fire. And you know, there are so many things you can do. They also use the HAARP to communicate with submarines when they submerged in water. So it’s got a few functions – there is other things the military has done that people know nothing about.

For one thing they decided to eliminate the static that you get sometimes when you try bounce your radio of the ionosphere. And so they put over a trillion copper needles up there and they thought that would get rid of the static. And it didn’t – it was a mess. And they left them all up there and of course they come down. These things eventually come down to the earth. Copper needles, yes they just dumped them up in the ionosphere – you know they tried these things and we have no idea what this does to the – to the dynamics of the protective layers of the earth.

They have sent – they decided to use barium as a tracer – barium and lithium and they send rockets up to – you know to dump barium into the upper atmosphere to see what happens to it – where it went. What kind of – you know what kind of dynamics are taking place at each level up above the earth, and so they have done all kinds of alterations of the basic earth system. This is what in many ways has impacted on our weather and climate and that we are calling climate change and we are blaming everything on carbondioxid.

Interviewer:  So you would say that military experiments not only provoke weather changes but also are a major part of climate change?

 Bertell:  Very definitely and they are certainly not the only – I mean I don’t think carbondioxid pollution does any good for our earth. So I am not saying don’t do that, but I am saying you could stop all that carbondioxid today and it’s not going to be weather like you remember. Because deep changes and damage has been done to the earth system. And you can’t cover it up by just calling it carbondioxid.

Interviewer: Would you also then say that most of the epidemics related to environmental changes are related to military experiments? I mean there are epidemics in the last years like AIDS, like several fever, illnesses, tracked in monkeys in ducks, in birds, in sheep, in cows – is this from your perspective as an epidemic researcher also related, or can be related to those experiments?

Bertell: What we are looking at now in medicine is that those who are talking at the level of quantum chemistry, quantum mechanics – so right know the medical profession considers the atom like the base. And then all of our healing is done with chemistry, different chemicals, pills and waxing. So – in other words – they consider that the atom isn’t gone change. However inside of the atom we have the quarks and inside of the quarks there are actually full turns – so we have a very active electrical system, it’s not a chemical system, but an electrical system inside of the atom. Now if you have change the atomic structure or the atomic dynamics inside of the atom (through radioactivity, electromagnetic waves, or what?) that atom is giving of different message then a normal one, so you have a normal medicine and an abnormal atom and they don’t communicate. And that’s what we call – these are all the infectious diseases that no longer respond to our medicine. So we have done something to change the communication system between the diseased atoms and the normal medicine.

So we are in a different era, we are in an era where we have to deal with electromagnetic medicine to restore normality to the atoms so that the atoms can be affected by our body’s immune system and by the normal medicines. So it’s complicated…and AIDS, it’s almost different, because the immune system itself is affected and becomes abnormal and therefore doesn’t deal with infections – and so that like the opposite effect. So you are going to have to use more of EM-medicine and medicine in the microwave range, but it has to be done very carefully and you have to know what you are doing – or you can cause more damage, because these things potentially are also harmful.

Interviewer:  If – I maybe first ask the other question again. Is there also any hints that these HAARP constructions, that they do change human consciousness in changing electromagnetic fields. I mean can you – there where some rumors about Bagdad when it was taken by the US army, that almost nobody there fought back. And it was hard to believe that this battle which was expected did not happen at all because nobody showed up on the streets. And that people from Bagdad said that it was almost well an absurd atmosphere in the town on these days. And there were some rumors that it might have to do with HAARP? What is about these things – did you research such – well – influences on our ability to think and to act and to perceive?

Bertell: I can only give you a professional opinion on that one. I doubt that it was HAARP, but I do say they had an electronic battle field and they had it coming from many different sources. So many sources that they couldn’t interprete it – so it was an electronic battlefield, and so they did have very many facts that were in interference with the normal electricity in the body, and the normal responses of people. But I think it was local – I don’t think it came from HAARP.

Interviewer: In a way, this what you describe here makes atomic bombs into a terrible but relatively primitive huge toy – military toy – because that what they build up now seems to be almost unseen, unsmellable, unlistenable, so it seems to be a weapon of which we don’t know that it exists, and we don’t know when it is in action.

Bertell: That’s right I think for practical purposes the military has abandoned nuclear bombs. I think they are unusable, and they keep them as a threat and they also keep them to keep a very large part of the population busy trying to write books, and why they shouldn’t have them and how you could manage.. – You know- cero nuclear weapons and all this sort of things. And so it keeps a lot of people busy that are not looking at the other things that they are really doing. But this isn’t unusual because if you look at World War One where they used gas – they never used that again in a war. It went into the pesticides, herbicides and defoliants) of the Vietnam war, and so if you look at the technology of a war it changes by the next war so you really shouldn’t be back here fighting the one that they used the last time, you should be trying to figure out what they are going to use in the next one. And I believe there will be weather wars. And I believe they will be horrible. I wrote a petition out there I hope people will sign, but I think it should be a crime against humanity and against the earth to either cause or enhance any of these things, like a hurricane, a monsoon, a tsunami, an earthquake, a mount slide, a volcano eruption, that should be declared very clearly as a crime against humanity and the earth.

Interviewer: Does this what you told me know, does this relate to this term of geo-engineering?

Bertell:  Well it’s very interesting – it’s (Edward) Teller – the father of the hydrogen bomb that’s proposing geo-engineering. They have been doing this for sixty years and they now (are) coming out of their glasses and offering to do these great things to stop the climate change. So it’s a crazy idea. I think they are gaining very boil about the whole thing. Now they are going to be heroes and … don’t let them touch the earth – keep their hands off of it. I know – this is not going to solve anything they have tried has failed. They did try putting some kind of plankton around in the ocean and that didn’t work. They want to paint the clouds white, they want to – they want to ruin everybody’s solar energy by putting all kinds of metals up in the air so that they reflect the sun away from the earth. It is especially awful considering they’ve had a breakthrough in solar energy in South Africa which they are very proud of, that makes it cheaper and much more efficient. So – you know – this is not sensible and anyway when you look at who is telling you when it’s the military telling you to do this to the planet – I mean I think you are crazy if you do – if you pay any attention…

Interviewer:  What’s about the rumors of the big tsunami which went through South East Asia, that these also might have been provoked by this turbulences in the inner earth?

Bertell:  That one was very suspicious. There was an American ship off of Indonesia that was – trying to tap for where were good places for oil or – under the water, they were doing under the water research. Now whether they set off something – I don’t know – I know they were there. They were working there. So there were a couple of other things around that that were suspicious. But I have no idea, you (don’t) know really practically who did it and why they did it or whether it was an accident, whether they were doing something else and that was a side effect. It was very suspicious and very unusual

Interviewer:  What is the strategic consequences of such weapons? I mean you don’t even have to move your armys out of your country if you are going with such weapons. What do you think is the aim, they follow, what is the ethics of warfare if there is any, which they are going for, what is the worldview behind it which is ignoring so much natural balances?

Bertell:  It has to be pure dominance! Be able to get everything you want and you need and the hack with everybody else! I mean there is no other, there is no land, you are not gaining land, its pure dominance. Pure greed. I don’t see any kind of rational.

Source: http://deadlinelive.info/2014/03/27/32184/

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More airplanes needed for weather modification in Indonesia: BPPT

More airplane needed for weather modification in Indonesia: BPPT Wed, March 26 2014 19:05

Jakarta (ANTARA News) – The Agency of Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) required at least 15 airplane to optimally implement the weather modification technology across Indonesia, an official said here on Wednesday.

“We now have only five airplane, three of which are available for weather modification. The other two are rented out for pioneer flight service,” Head of the Technical Management Unit of Artificial Rain of the BPPT Heru Widodo said here at a press conference on Wednesday.

According to Widodo, the weather modification technology should cover all the regions in Indonesia, which are divided into western, central and eastern.

Five airplane per region was enough for optimal weather modification in the region, Widodo said.

“Four aircraft are on standby for operations, while one or two is used for research,” he added.

Unfortunately, BPPT only has five airplane currently, four Casa C-212 and one Piper Cheyenne.

The Agency had to rent out two of their planes due to the high cost of maintenance, Widodo said.

Therefore, Widodo added that weather modification technology implementation in Indonesia was way behind Thailands.

The government of Thailand, according to him, has 24 airplane spread among five task force across the country.

Thailand has been frequently conducting weather modification not only to prevent natural disasters, but also to maintain its water supply and agriculture sector, Widodo said.

The BPPT had proposed procuring seven additional airplane, estimated to cost Rp500-600 billion (around 45 million US Dollar), to support the weather modification task force, Widodo remarked.

The proposed seven airplane consists of Cassas: CN 235, C-212 and N-219.

“It depends on the government policy, we already have the technology. If we can combine the two, it is hoped that food, energy and disaster related issues can be reduced in Indonesia,” Widodo said.

Weather modification technology has been widely used to avert floods in Jakarta and several regions in Java and also to reduce hotspots or forest fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan islands.

Meanwhile, a researcher of the Science and Atmosphere Technology Center of The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (LAPAN), Didi Satiadi, said Indonesia had extreme meteorology.

Most of the disasters in the country were hydro-meteorological disasters, which were caused by heavy rain, floods, landslides, whirlwind and droughts. However, the geologic disasters were responsible for the largest number of victims.

Science and technology can be applied to mitigate disasters, such as for understanding and predicting extreme weather.

“Furthermore, technology can be used to create an Indonesia that is weather-ready,” he said.

(Reporting by Aditya EX Wicaksono/INE/KR-BSR/H-YH)

Editor: Priyambodo RH

source: http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/93378/more-airplane-needed-for-weather-modification-in-indonesia-bppt

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How to Trigger a Volcanic Eruption on Purpose

Posted on March 4, 2014 by  in Climate ChangeDick Clippings,

• BY ERIK KLEMETTI04.04.121:30 PM

How to Trigger a Volcanic Eruption on Purpose. Over the last few weeks, a number of disparate items converged in my mind. First, in my Petrology and Volcanology class here at Denison, we spent a week talking about what geologists know about triggers for volcanic eruptions. Secondly, I was asked some questions about Richard Branson’s April Fools’ joke regarding the supposed Virgin Volcanic that would send a manned submersible into a volcano. Put these two ideas together, and you get to wondering about that age-old question: Could we trigger a volcano to erupt on purpose? This has been the realm of science fiction and conspiracy theorists for decades (centuries?), the idea that humans could figure out a way to get a volcano that isn’t erupting to start erupting. Mostly, this is in the hands of evil scientists/lunatics who are bent on world domination (paging Dr. Horrible) or some last ditch effort to save the planet (as in Crack in the World).

Wait, I think that rocket is pointed the wrong way. Image: Crack in the World

How do people suggest we could get a volcano to erupt?

The vast majority of fictional attempts to get a large explosive device into a volcano — something like a nuclear bomb — and the explosion from the bomb will cause the volcano to erupt. In most cases, the bomb needs to be delivered deep into the volcano (usually schematically shown as the “big vat of magma” that doesn’t exist) to get the plan to work. The idea is the explosion in the magma will cause it to continue to erupt. No one has ever tried this in reality (although we have bombed lava flows to no effect). I’ve also heard people say that merely drilling into a volcano could case an eruption by releasing the pressure building in the volcano, however, this sort of thing happens a lot without dire consequences (unless you own the drill rig). Interestingly, both of these ideas are also suggested when discussing how to stop a volcano from erupting — again, mostly by lowering the pressure in the volcano or blocking the magma from reaching the surface.

Why do volcanoes erupt in the first place?

Watch out! A supervolcano! Image: e_calamar/Flickr

The name of the game when it comes to starting an explosive volcanic eruption is pressure — or, more specifically, a drop in pressure. A simplified way to think of a volcano is like a champagne bottle with a cork. Keep that cork on and the bubbles in the champagne stay in solution. However, you remove that cork and all the dissolved carbon dioxide comes out of solution and bubbles form. Release that pressure fast enough and the bubbles form so quickly that you get that “pop” from the bottle. Build the pressure up in the bottle by shaking it and release the pressure and all that $500 bottle of champagne comes gushing out the top. That is, in a basic sense, what happens for an explosive eruption of a volcano — volcanic gases come out of solution as the pressure is released, forming bubbles that fragment the magma into ash and tephra. That pressure being released is what we call “lithostatic pressure,” that is the pressure caused by all the rocks above the magma. Lithostatic pressure goes up quite rapidly in the Earth — it takes 10 km of the Earth’s atmosphere to produce 1 “atmosphere” of pressure (what we feel at sea level). It only takes 4.4 meters of rock above you to exert the same force. Release enough of that lithostatic pressure and you release the cork. The ash plume is the “foom!” of champagne coming out of the bottle.

The other way you can get a magma to erupt, usually explosively, is the addition of outside water. Think about the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull — that eruption was made much more explosive by all the melted snow/ice on the volcano that mixed with the magma (however, it was likely triggered by an injection of new, hot magma). If the right ratio of water-to-magma exists, then the explosive mixing of magma and water can be self-sustaining, meaning that the explosive eruption will continue propagating until the supply of water or magma runs out. However, too little water means that you likely don’t sustain the explosive mixing, too much water and you quench (solidify) too much of the magma.

What could trigger an eruption?

There are many theories of what can trigger a volcano to erupt. Some are as simple as the buoyancy of magma — it is less dense than the surrounding rock, so it rises until it intersects the surface. Likely, this is only the dominant process as volcanoes that produce lava flows like Kilauea. If you want an explosive volcanic eruption, you want to produce bubbles (and lots of them) by (1) decompressing the magma, causing gases to come out of solution; (2) crystallizing minerals to concentrate water/volatiles in the remaining magma or (3) heating the magma with a new intrusion. A release in pressure can be accomplished a number of ways, including the failure of the roof above the magma body (a volcanic landslide is a great way), the buoyant rise of the magma or through some less common factors like melting of a glacier (likely too slow a process to trigger a specific eruption), excessive precipitation to erode the volcano, changes in atmospheric pressure or maybe even Earth tides caused by the pull of the Sun and Moon (rare, mostly in already active volcanoes). Once you’ve produced bubbles, you need to concentrate them towards the top of the magma body, maybe through a earthquake — think about shaking an open bottle of soda with bubbles on the side: They all float to the top. However, in all these cases, you likely need a volcano that is “primed” to erupt — that is, one that has eruptible magma that just needs to be “tipped” into erupting.

What you’d need to potentially make it work — and why that likely wouldn’t work either.

Armed with this information, if you want to try to get a volcano to erupt, you’ll need to do a few things:

• Find a volcano that is already showing some signs of magma intruding at shallow depths. This might be high levels of volcanic gases, shallow earthquakes, deformation of the volcano. You want something “primed” to go.

• Figure out a way to release the lithostatic pressure keeping the “cork” on the volcano so that the bubbles can form.

• Figure out how to get a lot of water into the volcano quickly … but not too quickly.

The fictional methods to get a volcano to erupt really don’t help in any of the scenarios. Typically you see the evil genius picking a volcano that isn’t showing signs of activity, so he/she is already showing up to the gunfight without bullets. The “bomb into the volcano” doesn’t really address the pressure issue as the explosions don’t remove enough of the overlying rocks to release that lithostatic pressure. Drilling into a volcano is like trying to bleed to death with a needle prick — not enough pressure release to really make a difference. Sadly, the problem here is that mad scientists need to “think big.”

How I’d try to do it. I’m sorry, I’ve claimed Santorini for my plans for world domination. Image: NASA Earth Observatory

Okay, so, how would I do it? First, I need to find a volcano ready to erupt that doesn’t erupt frequently (so that pressure is already building). Thinking of volcanoes globally that are showing signs of unrest today and likely a decent volume of eruptible magma, my pick might be Santorini in the Aegean Sea. The bonus there is that I have ready access to water. If there is magma rising under the volcano, then what I want to do is catastrophically release the overlying burden of rocks to produce bubbles in the magma, I want those bubbles to form a layer at top of the magma body to concentrate the pressure and I want to get water into that magma chamber to help aid explosivity. However, this is all easier said that done. One strategy would be to do something like mountain-top removal mining to remove a portion of the land surface above the magma body — however, this takes time. What evil genius holds the world ransom while they slowly remove truckloads/boatloads of material (“Sorry, hold on, only 10,000 more loads to go!”). No, to do it quickly you’d many want high explosive charges just below the surface to blast away the land surface. You’d need a lot of them placed as a grid across the volcano, but the goal is to remove material quickly. Now, those explosives should do double-duty, where the shaking caused by the explosions might shake bubbles free in the magma (as more bubbles are produced from the release of the pressure). If the pressure gets high enough, the weakened roof (from the explosives) above the magma body might give away, allowing for a rapid decompression. If you wanted to add to the fun, the cracks you’d developed should allow for percolation of seawater into the magma to help the explosion along (much like may have happened at Krakatau in 1883).

And now, the real problem

Now, you might be thinking “he’s got this whole thing figured out.” Thanks, I try. However, I don’t have it all figured out because there is one more problem I haven’t mentioned. That problem is time. Sure, I could do all these things but one thing that volcanologists don’t have a good grasp on is the timing — how long between the triggers of an eruption and the actual eruption. In some cases, it looks like seconds, like the earthquake and landslide at Mount St. Helens that triggered the 1980 eruption. In some cases, the trigger could take months or even a year as seems to be suggested by some volcanoes in Chile after large earthquakes. So, you might go through all the trouble only to have really no control on when the volcano will erupt — again, not the best plan if you’re planning to shock the world with evil genius. Heck, there is a pretty good chance that the volcano might not even erupt — so many variables go into this that even picking an ideal volcano that is ready to blow might not do it — and all your activity might impede an eruption rather than cause it. This all just shows how little we know about the exact mechanisms that can cause a specific volcano to erupt. So, as you draft your plans for world conquest, cross “hold the world hostage as I cause a volcano to erupt” from the list. You have a better chance at steering an asteroid into the planet than getting Yellowstone to explode at your whim.

 

Source: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/04/could-people-trigger-a-volcanic-eruption-on-purpose/

Reading List:

http://www.livescience.com/19434-virgin-volcanic-branson-prank.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crack_in_the_World

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/04/could-people-trigger-a-volcanic-eruption-on-purpose/pdvd_011

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/04/why-would-you-ever-bomb-a-volcano/

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/06/drilling-into-active-magma/

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/02/bubbles-fragmentation-and-explosive-eruptions/

http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Eruption_model.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overburden_pressure

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_%28unit%29

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v468/n7322/full/nature09558.html

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377027303002294

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/archive/1998/98_05_28.html

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/04/could-geothermal-drilling-cause-an-eruption/

http://www.craterlakeinstitute.com/online-library/volcano-earthquake-hazard/6a.htm

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/vie

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/01/two-restless-calderas-santorini-and-long-valley

http://www.ohvec.org/galleries/mountaintop_removal/016/

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/08/dayintech_082

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/321/5893/1178.full

http://seismo.berkeley.edu/blog/seismoblog.php/2010/05/18/today-in-earthquake-history-mount-st-hel-1981

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/12/the-volcano-earthquake-connection/

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Climate engineering is, er, not working

Posted on March 3, 2014 by  in Climate ChangeDick Clippings

Monday, 3 March 2014 – 7:53pm IST | Place: Bangalore | Agency: DNA

is, er, not working. There is only so much that technology can do, and arresting climate change is not one of them, claims a research.
This comes as a spanner in the works of those working night and day to evolve policies and mechanisms to arrest climate change. The implementation of climate engineering technologies as a last ditch effort to combat the escalating effects of climate change could, in fact, make things worse, assert a team of researchers.

According to a modelling study published in Nature Communications recently, climate engineering is likely to be either relatively ineffective or might even result in severe climatic side effects.

With the rate of climate change itself far outpacing mitigation strategies, climate engineering as a potential means of preventing catastrophic climate change has been attracting considerable interest from both climatologists as well as governments. Climate engineering, also known as geoengineering, refers to manmade technologies specifically designed to manipulate global climate. While the potential effectiveness of individual methods has been tested, there have been few attempts to compare them.

David Keller of the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research in Kiel, Germany, and colleagues used an Earth system model to evaluate the effectiveness and potential negative side-effects of five climate engineering technologies when deployed continuously, and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, under a high CO2-emission scenario.

There was a reason why the team undertook this study. They wrote, ìA previous comparison of the radiative forcing potential of different climate engineering methods addressed the question of how efficient the methods are at preventing global warming. However, the analytical methodology that was used did not allow for the quantification of side effects and the possible feedbacks in the climate system that may cause a method to be more or less effective than predicted.î In other words, there was a need to quantify the side-effects.

Technology just canít do it
The team has shown that, even when several technologies are combined, climate engineering would be unable to prevent mean surface temperatures from rising well above 2∞ C by the year 2100. In addition, they have projected that all technologies are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited warming reductions (less than 8 per cent), or that they have potentially severe side-effects and cannot be stopped without returning large amounts of stored CO2 to the atmosphere and causing rapid climate change.

The teamsí findings strongly suggest that climate engineering technologies should not be depended upon to prevent future warming and that CO2 mitigation is likely the most effective way to prevent further climate change.

Caution needed
The researchers concluded with a word of caution, ìClimate engineering does not appear to be an alternative option, although it could possibly be used to compliment mitigation. However, if climate engineering is seriously considered as one of the means of preventing climate change, care must be taken when evaluating whether the potential reductions in atmospheric carbon and temperature of a particular method are worth the risks and costs of its side effects.î

Source: http://www.dnaindia.com/bangalore/report-climate-engineering-is-er-not-working-1966545

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Water pollution threatens to choke national growth at root

Water pollution threatens to choke national growth at root

Posted on February 26, 2014 by  in Climate ChangeDick Clippings // 2 Comments

Global Times | 2014-3-3 15:58:01 By Lei Xiangping

Water pollution threatens to choke national growth at root. Although China’s air pollution keeps making headlines recently, water pollution is just as urgent a problem.

On February 18, the Xinhua News Agency reported that China plans to spend 2 trillion yuan ($330 billion) on an action plan to tackle pollution

of its scarce water resources, following the 1.8 trillion yuan package for air cleaning.

How severe is the extent of the damage? Since 2011, a series of water pollution cases have been exposed, like the oil leakage in the Bohai Bay, the cadmium contamination along the Longjiang River of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and the dead pigs incident in Shanghai’s Huangpu River.

These are not accidental, but are cumulative outbreaks of the long-standing and deep-seated water problems from our rapid development.

Government figures can show a broader picture of its severity.

One-fifth of the rivers are toxic, while two-fifths are classified as seriously polluted. A 2012 nationwide survey of 5,000 groundwater checkpoints found that 57.3 percent of the samples tested were heavily polluted.

Experts say the three main polluters are the industrial discharge, domestic rubbish, and the agricultural pesticide contamination.

The deteriorating water is not a local threat, but a national presence.

Last year, China’s watchdog for disease control confirmed that water pollution was responsible for the high cancer rates along the Huaihe River and its tributaries.

Xinhua reported that water pollution may be linked to the increase in cancer cases in more than 247 villages nationwide. Over 300 million rural residents cannot drink safe water, and at least 4 million hectares of farmland is irrigated with polluted water.

Water pollution can put our economic sustainability on the line. China has one-fifth of the world’s population but with just 7 percent of its water resources. The limited water reserves cannot tolerate more water pollutions.

Qiu Baoxing, Vice Minister of Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, was quoted by Caixin Magazine as saying that “based on international experience, when the urbanization rate reaches 50 percent, it is highly possible that a peak period of water pollution will be around the corner in the coming years.”

This reliance can cast a big shadow over the future use of water. The international water resource NGO, Circle of Blue, predicts that China’s demand for water will keeps growing to a degree that will outstrip the supply by 25 percent in 2030, and then eight out of the 10 major Chinese rivers will face water shortages.

Without enough water supplies, the possible consequences are that factories shut down, and urbanization stagnates, which in turn will hurt the economy, let alone the aftermath of polluting the limited water sources.

It is not too late to take precautions after suffering losses from the severe water pollution. We need to come out with more concrete policies to spend the 2 trillion yuan effectively, and make the advocate of building a “beautiful China” more tangible.

Lei Xiangping, an editor with the news desk of China Radio International

Source: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/845836.shtml

 

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Triggering Volcanic Eruptions as a Solar Radiation Management (SRM) scheme? – Part 1

Is Doctor Evil Triggering Volcanic Eruptions to block out sunlight and artificially cool our planet? We explore that theory in Part 1.

Now lets tale a peek at Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June of 1991, the one that has received the world attention in regards to SMR. During that year there were 43 known volcanic eruptions threw out the world. Mount Pinatubo was such an explosive eruption that NASA caught the effects before and the eruption.

In 1992 there were 30 known volcanic eruptions threw out the world. 1993 35 know volcanic eruptions. In 1994 39 known volcanic eruptions. In 1995 40 known volcanic eruptions.

st-helens-erupts-100517-02

Hello folks, Hope this post finds everyone well. As a private investigator (Ret.) I sank my teeth in to this article. To make a long story short, I became over whelmed. To have reports ready for the Lawyers, and or Courts, I realize for the purposes of this post I could not prepare a report in that manner. To do so would be overwhelming to the reader. It has been overwhelming for me with the wealth of information I have collected in an attempt to tell a story. During the course of this series of reports I will attempt to connect the dots. If anyone has anything to offer please let me know. I am looking for frequency emissions, that may have occurred before during and after a volcanic eruption. There is evidence out there that would suggest that HAARP when in use produces a harmonic resonance frequency at 2.3 to 2.5 Megahertz that has been recorded just before, during and after an earthquake. There was a captured recording just before the Fukashima earthquake. I have a list of every known volcanic eruption from Dec 2013 thou -9950

So I will begin a series of reports with this being Part 1.

Lets go back in history just a bit:

=========================================================================
I was given a document and this is what it said.
***********************************************************************************
“2012: The Year in Volcanic Activity {theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/12/2012-the-year-in-volcanic-activity/100423/ WARNING OPENING THIS URL CAN LEAD TO MALWEAR/SPYWEAR THAT CAN NEGATIVELY INFECT YOUR COMPUTER. Someone does not want you to see this!

Mount Pinatubo Ash CloudJust like the Internet and every single Internet success-story are (her) military-related or military-approved, so is every other involvement by (her) military in civil affairs in the best interest of empress Elisabeth v.2.0, too. NATO is the absolute champion in this, and the absolute champion amongst its programs of interfering with civil society is its geophysics program. It’s doing miracles to the tsaress’s makeup. Thus NATO officials tear their shoes open by traveling around the world and pretending that they mean good to you and to your people. They tell you that all they want to do is gather enough information to be able to protect you from and mitigate consequences of natural disasters should they occur; such as earthquakes, landslides, forest fires, floods, etc. What they actually do is collect data that enable them to affect the nature in a manner and to a scope such that your entire environment can be affected by an instantaneous disaster that can be ascribed to nature and not your eternal enemy — them. What a perfect theater!

I can think of at least three ways to use just one to two torpedoes on a tactical submarine in order to make a volcano go off. And if I can, NATO sure as hell can too, and better (meaning worse). Come to think of it, Iceland is the best studied and understood physiologically active region of the Earth, and it’s in the NATO’s back yard. Making a minor Iceland’s volcano go off a day after Kaczyński’s murder by Russian air traffic control, and thus prevent world leaders from attending the funeral of this historic figure that paid the price for his resistance to New World Occupation. Come to think of it, the “fall of communism”, being likely the most moronic show ever put on, already exposed London and Moscow as fundamental partners in evil. The latest confirmed news (hardly heard from Anglo-Saxon media) say that the satellite observations from the past two weeks verified no more than 5% increase in atmospheric ash of the amount needed to declare no-fly zone. NATO had motif, knowledge and means to trigger that little volcano, and then blow it’s eruption via their media out of proportion. Just like I can think of ways how to stimulate a volcano, I have a pretty good idea on how tectonic plates can be made to move in a wanted direction and, in many cases, to a wanted degree. In short: Yes, earthquakes can be caused easily, using tactical weapons deployed at certain spots so that strain is released (pressure in case of volcanoes).

Now you know why Anglos love studying geophysics round the world round the clock. It’s exactly the same kind of “love” for other sciences, say Egyptian hieroglyphs, as they dream of unmasking a “fundamental secret knowledge” which would enable them to expose Catholic Church (yawn, not again…) as a mythological fraud. You know what I’m talking about, the Horus-Jesus equation. Be it cherry-picked as it is, for the purpose of the discussion I’ll say this about that parallel: as if a model one uses to achieve the goal matters more than the goal itself! The Church’s ultimate goal is to civilize all bastards on Earth, that is to bring about that thing some like to call the Good, no doubt about that. As far as the London’s ultimate goal is concerned, there is little room for doubt there too.
Posted by Mensur Omerbashich at Wednesday, April 28, 2010″.
***********************************************************************

Sources: http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/

Triggering volcanos, AGU RT

theAGU Super-villains take note: How feasible is deviously inducing a volcanic eruption? 
http://t.co/AgEfDOrg

How do people suggest we could get a volcano to erupt?

The vast majority of fictional attempts to get a large explosive device into a volcano —something like a nuclear bomb — and the explosion from the bomb will cause the volcano to erupt. In most cases, the bomb needs to be delivered deep into the volcano (usually schematically shown as the “big vat of magma” that doesn’t exist) to get the plan to work. The idea is the explosion in the magma will cause it to continue to erupt. No one has ever tried this in reality (although we have bombed lava flows to no effect). I’ve also heard people say that merely drilling into a volcano could case an eruption by releasing the pressure building in the volcano, however, this sort of thing happens a lot without dire consequences (unless you own the drill rig). Interestingly, both of these ideas are also suggested when discussing how to stop a volcano from erupting — again, mostly by lowering the pressure in the volcano or blocking the magma from reaching the surface.

Why do volcanoes erupt in the first place?

The name of the game when it comes to starting an explosive volcanic eruption is pressure — or, more specifically, a drop in pressure. A simplified way to think of a volcano is like a champagne bottle with a cork. Keep that cork on and the bubbles in the champagne stay in solution. However, you remove that cork and all the dissolved carbon dioxide comes out of solution and bubbles form. Release that pressure fast enough and the bubbles form so quickly that you get that “pop” from the bottle. Build the pressure up in the bottle by shaking it and release the pressure and all that $500 bottle of champagne comes gushing out the top. That is, in a basic sense, what happens for an explosive eruption of a volcano — volcanic gases come out of solution as the pressure is released, forming bubbles that fragment the magma into ash and tephra. That pressure being released is what we call “lithostatic pressure,” that is the pressure caused by all the rocks above the magma. Lithostatic pressure goes up quite rapidly in the Earth —it takes 10 km of the Earth’s atmosphere to produce 1 “atmosphere” of pressure (what we feel at sea level). It only takes 4.4 meters of rock above you to exert the same force. Release enough of that lithostatic pressure and you release the cork. The ash plume is the “foom!” of champagne coming out of the bottle.

The other way you can get a magma to erupt, usually explosively, is the addition of outside water. Think about the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull — that eruption was made much more explosive by all the melted snow/ice on the volcano that mixed with the magma (however, it was likely triggered by an injection of new, hot magma). If the right ratio of water-to-magma exists, then the explosive mixing of magma and water can be self-sustaining, meaning that the explosive eruption will continue propagating until the supply of water or magma runs out. However, too little water means that you likely don’t sustain the explosive mixing, too much water and you quench (solidify) too much of the magma.

What could trigger an eruption?

There are many theories of what can trigger a volcano to erupt. Some are as simple as the buoyancy of magma — it is less dense than the surrounding rock, so it rises until it intersects the surface. Likely, this is only the dominant process as volcanoes that produce lava flows like Kilauea. If you want an explosive volcanic eruption, you want to produce bubbles (and lots of them) by (1) decompressing the magma, causing gases to come out of solution; (2) crystallizing minerals to concentrate water/volatiles in the remaining magma or (3) heating the magma with a new intrusion. A release in pressure can be accomplished a number of ways, including the failure of the roof above the magma body (a volcanic landslide is a great way), the buoyant rise of the magma or through some less common factors like melting of a glacier (likely too slow a process to trigger a specific eruption), excessive precipitation to erode the volcano, changes in atmospheric pressure or maybe even Earth tides caused by the pull of the Sun and Moon (rare, mostly in already active volcanoes). Once you’ve produced bubbles, you need to concentrate them towards the top of the magma body, maybe through a earthquake — think about shaking an open bottle of soda with bubbles on the side: They all float to the top. However, in all these cases, you likely need a volcano that is “primed” to erupt — that is, one that has eruptible magma that just needs to be “tipped” into erupting.

What you’d need to potentially make it work —and why that likely wouldn’t work either.

Armed with this information, if you want to try to get a volcano to erupt, you’ll need to do a few things:

Find a volcano that is already showing some signs of magma intruding at shallow depths. This might be high levels of volcanic gases, shallow earthquakes, deformation of the volcano. You want something “primed” to go.

Figure out a way to release the lithostatic pressure keeping the “cork” on the volcano so that the bubbles can form.

Figure out how to get a lot of water into the volcano quickly … but not too quickly.

The fictional methods to get a volcano to erupt really don’t help in any of the scenarios. Typically you see the evil genius picking a volcano that isn’t showing signs of activity, so he/she is already showing up to the gunfight without bullets. The “bomb into the volcano” doesn’t really address the pressure issue as the explosions don’t remove enough of the overlying rocks to release that lithostatic pressure. Drilling into a volcano is like trying to bleed to death with a needle prick — not enough pressure release to really make a difference. Sadly, the problem here is that mad scientists need to “think big.”

How I’d try to do it.

Okay, so, how would I do it? First, I need to find a volcano ready to erupt that doesn’t erupt frequently (so that pressure is already building). Thinking of volcanoes globally that are showing signs of unrest today and likely a decent volume of eruptible magma, my pick might be Santorini in the Aegean Sea. The bonus there is that I have ready access to water. If there is magma rising under the volcano, then what I want to do is catastrophically release the overlying burden of rocks to produce bubbles in the magma, I want those bubbles to form a layer at top of the magma body to concentrate the pressure and I want to get water into that magma chamber to help aid explosivity. However, this is all easier said that done. One strategy would be to do something like mountain-top removal mining to remove a portion of the land surface above the magma body — however, this takes time. What evil genius holds the world ransom while they slowly remove truckloads/boatloads of material (“Sorry, hold on, only 10,000 more loads to go!”). No, to do it quickly you’d many want high explosive charges just below the surface to blast away the land surface. You’d need a lot of them placed as a grid across the volcano, but the goal is to remove material quickly. Now, those explosives should do double-duty, where the shaking caused by the explosions might shake bubbles free in the magma (as more bubbles are produced from the release of the pressure). If the pressure gets high enough, the weakened roof (from the explosives) above the magma body might give away, allowing for a rapid decompression. If you wanted to add to the fun, the cracks you’d developed should allow for percolation of seawater into the magma to help the explosion along (much like may have happened at Krakatau in 1883).

And now, the real problem

Now, you might be thinking “he’s got this whole thing figured out.” Thanks, I try. However, I don’t have it all figured out because there is one more problem I haven’t mentioned. That problem is time. Sure, I could do all these things but one thing that volcanologists don’t have a good grasp on is the timing — how long between the triggers of an eruption and the actual eruption. In some cases, it looks like seconds, like the earthquake and landslide at Mount St. Helens that triggered the 1980 eruption. In some cases, the trigger could take months or even a year as seems to be suggested by some volcanoes in Chile after large earthquakes. So, you might go through all the trouble only to have really no control on when the volcano will erupt —again, not the best plan if you’re planning to shock the world with evil genius. Heck, there is a pretty good chance that the volcano might not even erupt — so many variables go into this that even picking an ideal volcano that is ready to blow might not do it — and all your activity might impede an eruption rather than cause it. This all just shows how little we know about the exact mechanisms that can cause a specific volcano to erupt. So, as you draft your plans for world conquest, cross “hold the world hostage as I cause a volcano to erupt” from the list. You have a better chance at steering an asteroid into the planet than getting Yellowstone to explode at your whim.

The first step is hire a good lawyer before you think about making a volcano erupt.
Gene

Source: Geoengineering Group

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Photo of Indonesian Air Force installing Weather Modification equipment to prevent heavy rains

The Jakarta Post | | Wed, January 15 2014, 3:03 AM

Indonesian Air Force members prepare weather modification equipment inside a Hercules aircraft at Halim Perdanakusuma Airport in Jakarta on Tuesday. The Air Force in cooperation with the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) and the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) are working together to prevent heavy rain, which has inundated several areas in Greater Jakarta. (JP/Wendra Ajistyatama)

weather modification
Weather men: Indonesian Air Force members prepare weather modification equipment inside a Hercules aircraft at Halim Perdanakusuma Airport in Jakarta on Tuesday. The Air Force in cooperation with the National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) and the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) are working together to prevent heavy rain, which has inundated several areas in Greater Jakarta. (JP/Wendra Ajistyatama)
source: thejakartapost.com

Indonesia starts cloud-seeding to fight smog

Indonesia attempts to put out blazes and probes plantation firms suspected of starting the fires

PUBLISHED : Sunday, 23 June, 2013, 1:42pm
UPDATED : Monday, 24 June, 2013, 5:31am

Indonesia has begun seeding clouds in an attempt to create rain to put out blazes that have choked Singapore and Malaysia with smog, officials said, while launching investigations into plantation firms suspected of starting the fires.

The pollution index dropped to moderate in Singapore yesterday after having hit hazardous levels but the smog intensified in Malaysia, with its government declaring a state of emergency in two southern districts.

An aircraft with cloud-seeding equipment managed to unleash rain over Bengkalis district on Sumatra island, where some of the biggest fires are raging, said Indonesian disaster management agency official Agus Wibowo.

Indonesian police said they were probing eight companies with possible Malaysian links that are suspected of starting the fires, a day after environment group Greenpeace said the blazes were on palm oil plantations owned by Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean firms.

In Indonesia’s Riau province, police spokesman Hermansyah said: “They are suspected to be Malaysian.

“It’s a very serious crime. Fire-starters can be jailed and companies can be sued. They usually do it at night in remote locations, making it difficult for us to trace them. But we will do our best to pin them down.”

Wibowo said the pollution standards index in Riau, where the fires are burning, exceeded the hazardous 400 level in several areas. Three helicopters also dropped water to douse fires on hundreds of hectares of carbon-rich peatland that have engulfed neighbouring Singapore and Malaysia in smog.

Malaysian Environment Minister G. Palanivel said the air pollutant index (API) hit 750 in the town of Muar – a 16-year high – early yesterday, with two other towns also reaching hazardous levels.

“The prime minister has signed a declaration of emergency for Muar and Ledang districts,” Palanivel said.

The highest ever API reading was 860 during the 1997-1998 haze crisis that gripped the region. Hundreds of schools have been closed since Thursday in Muar, which has a population of about 250,000.

Many Malaysians have begun wearing masks as a precaution as the pollution levels have climbed.

Malaysia’s API indicated that the capital Kuala Lumpur was also experiencing unhealthy air which had limited visibility to just one kilometre, according to Palanivel.

The annual haze problem is blamed by Indonesia’s neighbours for affecting tourism and public health. The haze hit its worst levels in 1997-1998, costing Southeast Asia an estimated US$9 billion from disruptions to air travel and other business activities.

source: scmp.com